What Is It?
Bloom syndrome is a rare, recessive, chromasomal, autosomal (which means that the chromosomes numbered 1-22 are affected) disease that you get from your parents, and happens when there are many breaks/arrangements in the person's chromosomes.

Symptoms:
Shortness, a facial rash that appears after exposure to sun, high pitched voice, and distinct facial features. Certain complications of this disorder could include chronic lung problems, learning disabilities, and diabetes. In a few rare cases, the person is mentally retarted.

How to Get It:
Carriers are heterozygous, and if 2 carriers mate, there is a 25% for bloom syndrome, a 25% for no bloom syndrome, and a 50% chance of no bloom syndrome, but they are carriers. The only chance of someone getting bloom syndrome is if the parents are homozygous recessive, or are both carriers (heterozygous). People with bloom syndrome have a huge increase in exchange events between homologous pairs and in sister chromatids.There are also increases in chromosomes breaking and rearranging, in comparison to people who don't have bloom syndrome. A mutation in bloom syndrome results in a higher risk of cancer. People with bloom syndrome could develop cancer at any age. The average age of cancer diagnosis is approximately 25 years old.
Punnett square for heterozygous (carriers):



Affected People
This disease affects 1 in 100 Ashkenzi Jews.

This is what Bloom syndrome might look like:

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Go to fullsize image

Notice the red rashes; like I said before, they appear after exposure to sun.

How to Cure It:
Intake of calories and nutritional products needs to be monitored in infants and newborns. Gastroesophageal reflux (which is when acid goes from the stomach to the lower esophagus) needs to be treated immediately, if present. Family, friends, and teachers are told to comfort children with in a way appropriate for their age, not size, like some people think. People with cancer should be treated as for cancer, but with less doses of radiation. Also,people should evaluate unexplained symptoms and signs as potential indications of malignancy. Colon cancer's is checked for decades earlier and is performed more than usual. Sun exposure to skin on the face should be avoided (obviously).

Bibliography:
From www.images.google.com, en.wikipedia.org, and www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Also used dictionary.reference.com for help.